Fr. Arcilla Notes

After 4 grueling months under the rule of the 84-year old priest, who called his student “poor ignorant souls” finally ended today. Surprisingly, despite the snore fest lectures, and useless and boring details on his book, I was able to learn a few things. It was not a very pleasant experience getting Ds for the most part but his hard to chew method, made me realize how rich history is. There is something beyond the facts presented to us over primary and secondary school. Thank you for that!

Below are links to files written by me and some of my blockmates. They are not complete but I hope this will still help you if ever you got him.

My Summary

A Few Class Lectures (With Voice Recording)

Blockmates’ Notes 1 and 2

Here’s a link written by a previous student using an older edition of the book. Just browse through the site for the parts you need.

Do not open the read more part anymore. I did not want my hard work going to waste so below is just a copy and paste of my summary.

PART I

1. THE MAGELLAN EXPEDITION

  • Magellan’s first trip to the East àwith the first Portuguese Viceroy in Goa, then the Moluccas
    • skirmishes with Arabs and Muslims
  • Vasco Nunez de Balboa found the western route to the East that Columbus failed to trace
  • King Manuel denied moradia (soldier’s pension) to Magellan. The latter decided to leave to serve the Castilian crown
  • Bishop Fonseca supported Magellan’s expedition immediately
  • Magellan was ordered to sail west to the Spice Islands, set up a trading post and sail back with samples of local products.
  • Magellan left for Spain. There were several attempts to discourage him from continuing the expedition, but he managed to outwit all his enemies.
  • Antonio Pigafetta wrote a detailed chronicle of this expedition. He described the hardships such as hunger, sickness and death.
  • Dropped anchor in Samar and later proceeded to Limasawa. They were greeted by a friendly welcome by the natives, who they described as “men of reason.”
  • Magellan amused the chiefs by showing them the prowess of European fighters. Although this friendship did not solve the problem with the lack of food.
  • Threaded their way to Cebu. They were asked to pay customs but it was foregone due to a Muslim merchant confirming that they were indeed serving a powerful king.
  • Humabon offered peace sealed by the traditional rite of kasing-kasing.
  • Magellan urged them to become Christians. Humabon was pleased by its teachings (e.g. respectful children) and graciously embraced it.
  • Magellan won over Humabon, not through superior military power, but through a new culture that valued human dignity
  • Lapu-lapu refused to recognize Magellan. The latter challenged the former to show him how Europeans fight.
  • Magellan committed several military blunders, which resulted in his death [p. 9]
  • Lapu-lapu cannot be considered the first Philppine hero because there was no Philippines at that time. Through the Spanish hispanization, the once disunited groups of mutually hostile island started to unite.
  • Lapu-lapu did not want to lose face to his tribe by accepting Humabon’s “higher” standing.  A datu needed men to survive and be recognized as an authority [p. 10]

2. AFTER MAGELLAN

  • Only a handful survived from the Cebu ordeal (Cebu turned against them)
  • Victoria was able to arrive back in Seville. The boat symbolized the first circumnavigation of the world.
  • Trindad took another route (Cape of Good Hope), where they notice what we know today as the International Date Line. The spices were loaded in this ship.
  • Spain drew up plans for further explorations.
  • Loaisa led an expedition to the Spice Islands. He took Andres de Urdaneta as his page.
  • After Loaisa died, there were several commanders that took his place. But if it were not for Urdaneta, they would have not won over Tidore (Luso-Hispanic rivalry)
  • Urdaneta was sent to Moluccas to settle accounts. The Portuguese confiscated his papers but he was able to return to Spain with the help of a Castilian ambassador at Lisbon [p.16-17]
  • Ruy Lopez de Villalobos was assigned to equip a fleet to the western Pacific. He also had difficulty in obtaining food. He was instructed to call Samar and Leyte, “Las Islas Felipinas” in honor of Philip II.
  • Villalobos died in sea, where after his men had to surrender to the Portuguese

3. THE LEGAZPI EXPEDITION

  • Instead of the Alvarado expedition, Urdaneta joined the Augustian Order in Mexico and became a priest
  • The king ordered Legazpi to head the expedition and Urdaneta agreed to join it as well. Mateo de Saz and Martin de Goiti, field marshals who were important to the conquest of the Philippines.
  • The expedition was not to trade in spices but in silk and other oriental good, for which the Philippines could serve the center of exchange. They were also committed to Christianize its inhabitants.
  • It was difficult to recruit people to join. The main reasons why the recruits decided to join were because of their interest of trying their fortune and the reconquista.
  • The young but poor wanted to prove themselves, a fin de valer mas (to be of greater worth) and rise to nobility, dineros son algo (money is something). They were more than ready to die for their God and King
  • Legazpi was to follow the route taken by Villalobos. He later took possession of Guam for Spain. Urdaneta suggested colonizing the island but the former opted to follow his instructions to sail to the Philippines.
  • They were able to anchor safely but instead, encountered problems with the natives.  They were treated with cold hostility. The few signs of promises (food) never materialized.Even when they wanted to use force, they stayed firm and decided not to inflict physical harm.
  • There were also times that the natives would flee upon seeing them. Legazpi made his men return the goods that were appropriated from the Muslims. The latter was grateful and told them that the natives were scared since the Portuguese pretended to be Castilians, and killed and kidnapped the natives.
  • Legazpi realized they had to disabuse them of their error.

4. THE CONQUEST OF CEBU

  • The lack of food was a problem that still persisted.  They decided to stay in the Philippines to Christianize them, asking Spain for reinforcements.
  • Datu Pagbuaya left Legazpi a sealed document attesting a friendly welcome for the Spaniards.  He asked Katunao to guide them to Cebu. They are considered the first Christian families of Dapitan and Bohol respectively.
  • The conformation of the location of Cebu convinced the Spaniards to start a colony. Cebu after all swore allegiance to Spain.
  • Legazpi used peaceful methods and even waited just to get to talk to Chief Tupas. But the latter was fearful of the Spainards. Requerimento offers three times an assurance, by if they still refuse, they would be allowed to use their cannons.
  • When they fired, the people fled and some of the houses burned down. They got food supplies and samples to be sent to Mexico.
  • Cebuanos tried to harm the Spaniards in their sleep. Although they gradually accepted and Tupas performed kasing kasing with Legazpi*
  • P. 31- p.32
  • Pedro de Arana was beheaded. The Field Marshal wantd to avenge him so he apprehended some natives. One of them was Chief Tupas’ niece. Legazpi’s humane treatment of the war captives won over the other chiefs. They saw a new aspect of society under the Spanish Christian rule (importance of life)
  • Finally Chief Tupas met with Legazpi. They brought up the former’s insincerity despite peaceful overtures and Magellan’s death. In exchange, they agreed to pay tribute. Legazpi put everything that has happened behind.
  • The peace condition included: (1) pledge of fidelity and service to the Spanish king (2) mutual help and defense from the enemy (3) crimes, punishable by each party’s laws (4) escapees must return to respective authorities

5. THE SPANISH CAMP IN CEBU

  • Legazpi had Urdaneta assist his grandson, Felipe de Salcedo in an expedition to Mexico, bringing samples of local products.
  • Urdaneta was a good cosmographer and experienced navigator. His return route (460 latitude to catch the easterlies) became the route of galleons in the Manila-Acapulo trade
  • Urdaneta’s arrival proved one could sail west and arrive at the Far Eastern Spice Islands. Arellano’s claim that Legazpi’s fleet was lost was set to right
  • Arana’s murderers blamed Tupas’ friends. This caused a dispute between Mactan and the Cebuanos.
  • Goiti’s fighting skills impressed the Cebuanos since he easily routed the hostile group.
  • Legazpi still encountered problems:
    • Cebuanos were deceitful and did not want the peace, friendship and Christianization so they stay away and try to starve the foreigners, in hope they would leave
    • Some of Legazpi’s men were frustrated and wanted to escape. When Legazpi found out he had them executed in public.
  • In Leyte, Goiti learned some important information:
    • Those who fled Cebu and Mactan were trying to get the Leytenos to help expel the Spainards. Although plans for this failed.
    • Juanes, adopted son of Chief Sabuco was actually Mexican who spoke better Visayan than Castilian became their interpreter and source of information about the region before he was poisoned.
  • Tupas offered some slave women to Legazpi . He treated them kindly. One of them was Tupas’ widowed niece who was converted due to her sincerity, with the name “Isabel”. She married Master Andres, the fleet caulker and became the first Catholic couple in the Philippines.

6. THE PORTUGESE INTERLUDE

  • Juan de Isla- The Portuguese had orders to expel the Spaniards from the Philippines, claiming that the islands were theirs. Legazpi was just as friendly with the Portuguese, even inviting them ashore.
  • They had the diplomatic double talk where neither side succeeded in fooling the other. Legazpi and Pereira later had a serious talk but each stood by their original claim. Legazpi wanted to  await the King’s instructions before agreeing to anything else.
  • Tensions rose. Legazpi was able to strengthen the defenses when the Portuguese first fired. An intermittent exchange of fire continued. Portuguese boats were damaged and Pereira was also indisposed. They were willing to sign the peace agreement.
  • When there were no more Portuguese lurking around, Legazpi moved camp to Panay
  • Legazpi became the first governor-general. He could appoint regidores (admistative council members) and distribute encomiendas (lands held in trust) to reward outstanding service to the Crown
  • Legazpi went back to Cebu to found the first Spanish city

7. THE CONQUEST OF MANILA

  • In Mindoro, some chiefs asked for Salcedo’s help. When he and 40 soliders easily took a village, the rest burned their houses and gathered behind forts. They rejected peace and started shooting. They were defeated in hand-to-hand combat. When they took down the first fort, the second one refuse to yield until they saw Salcedo’s boat
  • Mindoro was more loyal than Cebu
  •  Legazpi ordered Salcedo to take Manila without force. When he arrived, peace concluded between Goiti and chiefs Laya and Soliman
  • gente sin policia– peple with no central government
  • Soliman did not want to tolerate abuse. He didn’t want to pay tribute so he started to fire against the Spaniards. Goiti was able to defeat the fort and enter Pasig unopposed. Laya remained in his house and surrendered.
  • Goiti used his weapons in self-defense but did not pursue his advantage. He was glad to be free fro Soliman’s tyranny and abuse
  • Dumandal assured Legazpi that Manila, except for Soliman wanted peace with the Spaniards and apologized for last year’s incidents
  • Learned what it means to be under a new ruler. They people had to transfer to “Bagong Bayan”
  • Lakan Dula of Tondo wanted to eject them. In Bankusay, the Spanish reputation was confirmed. They defeated the natives.
  • Legazpi founded the second Spanish city. Although this did not mean immediate peace and security for them.
  • Salcedo had expeditions of conquest and exploration. (e.g. Taguig, Betis, Bicol, Pangasinan, etc)
  • Penniless, Legazpi died of a heart attack. He laid the foundation of Christianity in the Far East.
  • His successor, Guido de Lavires was a mere bookseller who decided to continue Legazpi’s policies.

PART II

1. PRE-HISPANIC ISLANDERS

  • Spaniards were surprised with the richness of Cebu’s culture. It can be summed up into two points:
  • Magellan’s first trip to the East àwith the first Portuguese Viceroy in Goa, then the Moluccas
    • Barangay- It was their form of government, which comprises a datu who heads over a small group of people, mostly kin. Since the population was low during that time they had a strong sense of gente sin policia, which means each man only takes care of himself and his group. The land they occupy is passed down from their ancestors

– Presence of tariffs and economic measures such as weights

  • Religion/Superstitious belief- Religious cults shaped social behavior. They were polytheistic, believing in lesser god since they don’t feel the main god’s influence. Regardless, these gods are worshipped through communal acts if not the people will receive retribution which they believed was manifested by the fickle forces of nature.  This is how the indigenous idiom, “simbahan” which is generated from “samba” or worship, came to be. Because of this previous religious belief, it was difficult to grasp the concepts of “heaven and hell” or even “sin or righteousness.”

– Presence of tariffs and economic measures such as weights

  • Examples:
    • Visayans believing in nine lives. By the 8th death, the soul would have been as small as a rice grain
    • Funerals ends with a banquet known as “pagpasaka” (ascending from)

2. INDIGENOUS IDIOM AND RELATED ARTS

  • Missionaries learned the local tongue. A decree divided Philippines into linguistic zones among missionary orders
  • To teach Castilian, they had to use local terms. Over time, Castilian terms were indigenized. People don’t use the old Tagalog instead the Castilian derivative
  • Excellent musicians. Musical instruments accompanied the songs that was understood “without words”
  • Natural versifiers. Poetry was full of metaphors.

3. SOCIAL TRAITS AND TRADITIONS

  • Youth used terms of respect
  • Difference in culture with the different provinces (p.58-58)

4. INDUSTRIAL ARTS

  • Several kinds of houses that served different purposes (usually built alone)
    • Hele- tree top; security
    • Farm house- light materials; move away easily
    • Smaller House- with farm area
    • Datu’s House- hardest wood; many rooms for wives and concubines
  • Geography promoted boat-building traditions. Boats were sturdy even no nails were used to build it
  • Learned to foretell weather to ensure good agricultural pursuits
  • Bi-lingual dictionaries contained more fighting terms than indigenous economic transactions
  • Important to know how to fight and use weapons because slave raids and piracy were frequent (p. 60-62)

5. ECONOMIC PRACTICES

  • Debt slavery was common. When the loan has matured, offer their services to the chief. The chief’s strength lies in the number of slaves he has to do various jobs. Slaves were well treated and even earned a good amount of money.
  • Barter is the form of local and international exchange. (weapons, meat, porcelain)
  • Weights and measures=Chinese bells or agungs were the basic rate of exchange. The more rings, the more valuable it is
  • Men were carpenters, smiths while women were weavers
  • Rich lush agriculture protected by fences and carefully monitored for weather changes

6. INITIAL COLONIAL POLICY

  • Recopilacion de Leyes de Los Reyno de las Indias: God gave them the world, so in gratitude the Crown was obliged to spread Christianity in all its territories
  • Two kinds of colonies
    • Farm- similar climate, identical products; migration motivated by socio-political issues
    • Exploitation- different climate, exotic products; migration due to economic reasons
  • King banned the use of “conquistar” (to conquer) and instead use “pacificar” (to pacify). The first implied violence while the second facilitated one of Spain’s reason for colonizing, which was to Christianize the people
  • Government was not absolute but arbitrary. Checks and balances were observed. Vassals were loyal and “as good as their king”
  • Spanish legal tradition of we respect but do not implement the law was brought about by injustice in the law when it an item was:
    • Illegally inserted (obrepcion)
    • Deliberately omitted (subrepcion)
  • Not incorporated but integrated as a province under one Crown. Local laws and tradition that did not go against the Gospel and Castilian laws were respected.
  • Cabezas became one of the landed elite while his former followers remained landless. Philippine society was divided into classes.
  • The Recopilacion is entirely about the proper treatment of the Indio, which included being resettled in permanent communities, wear clothes, raise crops and livestock for their own, barter, learn Castilian (to explain the Christian mysteries),etc
  • Consejo de Indias
    • Viceroy- highest colonial official appointed and supervised by the Royal Council. Distance gave him unlimited powers, which the Crown tried to limit. Philippines is under the Viceroy of Mexico
    • Governor General- top official in the Philippines, exercised similar powers but term was too short for good administration. New appointees did not necessarily continue the predecessor’s policies
    • Audencia-tribunal of justice to assist the top colonial official and curb abuses
  • Royal provisions served to confirm special privileges. Example: Cedula could be used as a royal grant or favor in answer to a petition
  • Encomenderos were to make the natives forget their ancestral ceremonies by settling them in permanent communities, provide just government and instruct Christian teachings. To do this, they were allowed to collect tribute, which he had a share in. This made the colony self-supporting.
  • Initially refused to abandon ancestral lands but they realized the advantage of sedentary agriculture. Plows dug deeper and there were dikes of water so the land can be planted again.
  • 3000-4000 individuals raised the community’s legal to status to a town, which should have a Church, government hall, school and a plaza.
  • Agreement to live in permanent settles meant vassalage to the Crown. Aside from tribute, polo was done by healthy males aged 18-60.
  • The problem was the rate. Legazpi fixed it at 8 reales but Gov. General Dasmarinas increased it until it became 12 reales that can be paid in cash or kind (rice, chickens, cloth,etc). It was used to fund the army and chronic anti-Muslim campaign
  • Indios wanted the easier way out by giving their service, which resulted to neglected crops and livestock. This gave the Spaniards impression that they were lazy. Gov. Lavezaris wanted to use violence on the natives, justifying it by refusing the offer of friendship.
  • Legazpi followed royal instructions and liberated the people from tyrannical datus and Muslim slave traders
  • Principalia were exempt from polo

7. PATRONATO REAL DE INDIAS

  • Definition: Obligation to spread the Gospel to all their dominions because the Papacy granted the totality of rights and duties to Catholic Kings.
  • The Crown had no authority in sacramental administration, consecration of church prelates, delimitation of dioceses and foundation of parish churches. But outside these, they enjoyed powers of supervision and jurisdiction.
  • Royal supervision empowered the King to look into the priest’s behavior and try them in court
  • Jurisdiction gave the King power to dominate Church vacancies
  • Recurso de fuerza (appeal against violation of one’s rights)- Crown steps in
  • Solarzan’s regalism and Leilo’s counterargument (p.78-79)

PART III

1. HISPANIZATION

  • Legazpi distributed encomiendas to reward and provide colonists the means to support themselves
  • Friars accused the colonists of unjustly taking advantage of the poor natives
  • Polo: Healthy males were regularly recruited as native auxiliaries àdied during military campaign or became too sick to tend to their crops
  • When inflation increased, the poor suffered the most due to dead family members, locust ruining crops and little available food. [edit] It was hard to discipline them from robbing.
  • Chinese junks came yearly. They consumed and spent like the Spaniards
  • Governor Gonzalo Ronquillo de Penalosa offered to colonize the Philippines with his own money but with the condition that he received the lifelong title of Governor General. The contract failed since he lost men and the first thing he did was to was to subject his predecessor, Francisco de Sande to juicio de residensia. Ronquillo’s greed was “insatiable.” Residents handed their assets and documents to the monasteries for safe-keeping. Soldiers received no pay, lands were secretly awarded as encomiendas to his son and his cousin
  • Sande exacted revenge and imposed an even higher fine on Ronquillo
  • Ronquillo died due to severe depression. He appointed his cousin, Diego Ronquillo de Penalosa, to succeed him. He was the one behind the dead governor’s monopoly of the galleon trade
  • Not greed but discontent from gobernacillos, Agustin de Legazpi of Tondo and Magat Salamat of Martin Panga caused them to drastic action leading to their suspension for misconduct in office. They planned to take arms and recapture the authority they had lost, their slaves, their gold, and several wives. Don Agustin had an agreement with a Japanese trader who offered to supply fighters for his campaigns Gov. Santiago de Vera had rebuffed.
  • Don Agustin went back to his original surprise attack plan with allies from Borneos and Tagalogs on the rear. Yet the public remained apathetic even upon learning about the plot. Too early for Philippines to be coalesced into a single political entry
  • Antonio de Morga, Deputy Governor General submitted a list of shortcomings and abuses of encomenderos and alcaldes to the Crown. Encomenderos created new ways to disregard royal juncture and demand more tribute or service that the law required. While alcades showed no interest in providing religious instruction and left churches in disrepair

2. THE FIRST MANILA SYNOD

  • The first Bishop of the Philippines created an assembly known as “Manila Synod of 1582” to find solutions to critical problems plaguing the new colony
  • Mistakes and difficulties would naturally surface
  • Did not intend to legislate but to seek guidance from the truth
  • First issue: Slavery –restitutio in solidum (total compensation by all who cooperate or a bet a wrong act)
  • Questioned the fact whether unchecked abuses justified the uprisings of the Indios. Because will things change for the better?
  • Remedy lies with the King – must choose one who can best represent him, with the proper checks and balances
  • Dispense justice but the problem is erring officials were left unpunished. If all officers were executed, no Spaniards would remain
  • Pointed out that punishment could be fines, confiscation of property, etc
  • Castilian ruled the Philippines only by papal delegation propter evangelium (for the sake of the Gospels). Crown can conquer if they build a church in the area. The Church sent preachers, which the Crown protects as well the converts through a permanent institution.
  • Inhabitants were “barbarians” who were ignorant of got and blinded by sin that they had no idea of the natural law. The Christian government could defend Christianity and Christians from pagan beliefs
  • It did not influence future colonial polices and socio-economic dislocation but is there to simply give guidelines to confessors

3. EARLY SOURCES OF REVENUE

  • Spaniards thought that gold was abundant in the Philippines.
  • It was difficult for the Indios to pay tribute due to the precarious agricultural environment. Tribute changed but it was never a respectable amount to support the Philippine government
  • Wanted to create an “Asian emporium” but instead focused on Christianity
  • Tributes paid for the work in the missions and in emergencies, local defense
  • Three sources of revenue: tribute, polo, situado

4. THE GALLEON TRADE

  • Grateful Chinese traders traded sample goods in Manila. After their initial success, they returned yearly.
  • To Mexico- Chinese silk from Chinese junk in Manila; To Philippines- Needed supplies and silver
  • Anyone could invest in the trade as much as he wanted to
  • Pirates, bad weather and losses in the sea did not dampen the interest of the Philippines
  • Trade eventually expanded. Law banned sailing to China to get it at cheaper prices, instead wait for them to come to the Philippines
  • Permiso (limit of goods in one year)- P250,000; Situado doubled the amount
  • “pancada” system- paid Chinese exporters for re-sale of shipload to traders
  • Did not have adequate coast guards, traders anticipated the arrival of the Chinese junks and met them half-way
  • To invest, needed a boleta (license) from the Junta de Repartimiento (Board of Distribution). It entitled trader to lading shares divided in four.  Prices depended on the result of pancada, sales in Mexico, amout of ready cash in Manila, available lading space and number of boletas sold.
  • Those who could not pay for the boleta was expected to return them but instead illegally sold it to the highest bidder
  • Eventually only the Governor General’s friends, the Obras pias (Pious Trust Funds) and a small coterie of money traders had access to boletas.
  • Wealth caused the diversity of individual exports. This became more apparent after the establishment of the Consulado whose members were the richest in Manila
  • To end abuses, limit the boletas only to those who agreed to engage in agriculture
  • A second body, Junta de Avaluos (Board of Assessment) made sure that the goods did not exceed the permiso
  • Initially, Philippine goods like cotton mantas but was replaced by Chinese and other Oriental goods
  • Situado included bequest, legacies, pious trust funds, minted silver for salaries, and other colonial expenses , all of which were deducted from the cash listed in the manifest

5. TIANGGE AND ENGLISH “COUNTRY TRADE”

  • Indios were not banned for trading but they were poor. They engaged in small scale economy known as barter or tiangge
  • Popular system of commercial exchange Uplanders brought forest products while coastal from the sea.
  • Tiangge was held once a week at an easily accessible place
  • No middleman, exchange was direct and prices could be haggled.
  • It brought together people from various places and walks in life
  • It became the center for local talk and exchang of new and helped spread regional information.
  • British were not allowed to trade with Manila. They found a way to go around it by using Malay pilots
  • Nicholas Norton Nichols suggested Manila-Cadiz route through the Cape of Good Hope but it was not followed due to his sudden death and indifference of monopolists of galleon trade
  • Foreign traders took loans, paid only part of it before it matured then taking a larger loan. This constant indebtness and partial payment binds the creditor and debtor on long-term credit arrangement
  • System of towkay (boss) emerged. Traders mostly British and Chinese hired agents in retail outlets in the province. The boss did not have to pay taxes and cornered the market of his agents
  • The mark of distinction shifting from aristocracy (datus, gobernacillo) to material wealth

PART IV

1. THE MUSLIM SOUTH

  • Muslims in southern Philippines, never accepted Spanish rule harassed the Manila government, which have no resources to solve the problem
  • Muslims traders doubled as propagators of faith. Eventually became lord through marriage or conquest and erected forts
  • Spaniards found Muslim communities in Manila and indiscriminately labeled them as Moors
  • Some wanted to battle them but others didn’t want to use force. The King ordered that the Indios converted should not be enslaved, only the Muslim proselytiers
  • Spanish’s rigor against Islam. After sailing halfway across the globe, they encountered the same enemy that they just ousted
  • In Borneo, Sri Ela felt that the Spaniards were in a better position to help him. He convinced Governor Francisco de Sande to dispatch a force to restore him to his throne. The governor sent Esteban Rodriguez de Figueroa, a rich encomendero in Iloilo. On his return home from the campaign, he met with some resistance but he won the allegiance of the sultan of Sulu. He demanded a tribute of pearls, teach the Joloans “policia” (public order and polity), Christianity and their life of piracy.
  • Figueroa did not leave a garrison, when his sails disappeared from the horizon, Panguiran forgot all about his oath of allegiance to Spain.
  • Rodriguez de Figueroa received royal approval to conquer Magindanao at personal cost and govern it. Impatient at the delay of his Field Marshall, Figueroa himself landed. Despite warning, he refused to wear his protective helmet. A Muslim warrior sprang out of the grass but he was quicker on the draw. He let his guard down. Obal felled him. Figueroa never regained consciousness and died six hours later.
  • His second in command set up a garrison, which he named “Nueva Murcia.” He was hoping to win the hand of Fugueroa’s widow and he estate and conquer Magindanao. The Governor General jailed him for abandoning his post without orders.
  • Toribio de Miranda strengthened the post at La Caldera. Word had spread that the British were about to pounce on Manila. Miranda was summoned to defend the city. But the rumors were false because it was the Dutch lurking around to dislodge the Spaniards from the Philippines. He was not sent back to Mindanao and lost a strategic post without a fight. La Caldera could have stood guard at the tip of Zamboanga where the Spanish guns could pick off Muslim vintas.
  • The first attempts to impose Spanish rule over Muslim Mindanao and Sulu failed. The sultans of Muslim Mindanao, Borneo, and the Moluccas agreed they could not allow the Spaniards to set foot in southern Mindanao.
  • Captain Juan de Gallinato failed to take Jolo. From the few captives he rescued, he learned how the Magindanaos used the Sulus as diversionary tactics for it freed them to attack the Visayas.
  • Bwisan and Rajah Mura who Figueroa had failed to bring down to their knees, led a combined fleet. The Spaniards had been alerted and were ready. Government defenses were unfortunately inadequate. The slow vessels were no match for the swift Muslim vinta, which slipped away easily. Fear spread.
  • The missionaries erected watchtowers on the seashore to detect enemy sail and warn the people on time.
  • The government was not inept, it was faced with threats on all sides at the same time. (Chronic Muslims raids, Dutch, Chinese, some Spanish officers)
  • Gallinato recruited a small striking force and made sure that the garrison would not be emptied. Although the merchants kept the enemy informed of every move against them. The Muslims bypassed the zone and proceeded instead to Batangas and points farther north
  • Fr. Melchor Hurtado hid himself in the hollow of a huge trunk. The Jesuit was not maltreated was even allowed to minister Christians. After a year he was released. The Governor General sent him to negotiate peace with the Magindanaos but negotiations were frank and difficult.
  • Governor Pedro Bravo de Acuna led a Spanish expedition to the Moluccas. Magindanao chiefs signed the peace with Manila. They agreed to recognize and support Silongan. For their part, they swore allegiance to Spain, discontinue anti-Spanish raids, provide assistance to the Spanish government. In return they will not be compelled to abandon their old religion.
  • Acuna died after his victorious campaign but the Audiencia failed to take advantage of the situation.
  • The Muslims resumed their raids with even more devastating effects in their next governor’s reign, Juan de Silva.
  • The Jesuit missionaries convinced Siva that a garrison in Zamboanga will be beneficial despite the distance from the capital and isolation from the enemy.  Government was able to monitor the movements of the Muslims on their way to the north. The problem was not totally solved but it became more manageable.
  • Sebastian Hurtado de Corcurea, the new Governor-General was set to solve the muslim problem. He annihilated the defensive fleet of Sulan Kudarat. He stormed Lamitan in Basilan and made it his base of operations.  Mongkai accepted the peace terms. Corcurea moved to Zamboanga.
  • Rajah Bungsu of Sulu heard of the Spanish tried to play for time in order to put up defenses. Corcuera saw through it and demanded the surrender of Jolo and Basilan.
  • Courcuera landed in Cavite but he did not rest. War bands were massing in Bungsu’s capital. And the governor received a challenge to fight, and took it.  Corcuera appeared off Jolo, refusing a request for time to consider terms of surrendering, he attacked. Sulu found themselves alone as their allies began siding with the Spaniards.
  • Courcuera appointed Captain Gines Ros de Avila and the two Jesuits remained as the chaplains. His appointees did not have his capability and administrative talent. They failed to settle the question of leadership among the Magindanaos.
  • Kudarat recovered and was recruiting men, and was back in power. The alliance of three datus strengthened the Muslim cause. The government transferred its forces to Zamboanga. Spaniards won the individual combats, but failed to consolidate their gains.
  • Jesuits returned and opened missions in Mindanao but with bad roads and isolated supply centers and the military outposts were far and few.
  • Sabiniano Manrique de Lara, the new Governor-General, found the colony still reeling from the effects of the critical years of his predecessor. (Typhoon, galleons brought back less silver)
  • De Lara was faced with the problem of the Chinese pirate Chen Che’en Kug (Koxinga) who demanded a tribute from Manila. Manila refused the demand. But he summoned all the Spanish garrisons and concentrated them in Manila. He died but the damage had been done. The garrisons were not returned to the south.
  • Muslim raids and the apparent helplessness of the colonial government. The Indios recruited, as auxiliaries had no strong incentives to exert themselves. They were badly paid and poorly fed. They died immediately hardly being trained to fight.

2. EXPANSION TO THE NORTH

  • Spaniards called the inhabitants of the mountainous region:
    • “Ygarrotes” or “Ygolotes”
    • “Tribus independientes”
    • “Mandaya” (uplanders)
  • Tribes resisted foreign enroachment. Their cold mountains preserved their independence and their non-Christian traditions
  • Juan de Salcedo saved them from Chinese pirates, which won their friendship. He left a Spanish garrison in Vigan before sailing back to Manila. He arrived too late, his grandfather already died.
  • Gold- “dineros son algo” (money is something)
    • Personal jewelry and tribute was paid in goldà led them to believe colony was rich
    • Spaniards didn’t reach the sources easily  due to inadequate technology, geography and climate. They failed to gain control of the minds but they were still able to enjoy the initial success of this
    • Government tried opening trackless mountain forests to “punish” the Igorots who raided the lowlands. Efforts were not always successful
  •  Apostolic Reasonà opened missions in the area and lived with them. Many converted and lived as Christians.
  • Igorots remained apart from the main stream apart of Hispanized Philippine society. They did not pay tribute or serve in polo. Their “princes” had the power to rule and were relatively self-sufficient
  • Gold production declined due to the royal quinto discouraging mining and the arrival of Mexican silver
  • Dominican Fray Jacinto Palo saw sample of the rich ores and showed it to the Bishop. They kept quiet about it until Hernando Rios Coronel came to know about it. He convinced the friar to pen them. There won’t be abuse because they will employ the Chinese in need of employment.
  • Philip II ordered continued efforts to mine the minerals to finance his European wars. It became harder to Christianize the natives. They became hostile and attacked the Spaniards. Manila government eventually ended all efforts to exploit gold mines
  • Igorots engaged in barter with the lowlanders but fought them when they suspected that they were aiding the Spaniards
  • Failed to get land because of attacks, abuses and gear of tribute. Main difficulty was the refusal to abandon ancestral lands.
  • Dominican friars sailed to Bataan and transferred the people to Cagayan. Since the government refused to force the people to migrate, they sailed back to their original homes
  • Christian and local traditions clashed
  • Jose Huelga Malgarejo was ordered to make the people live in permanent communities. He took possession with the help of Governor Jose Basco. Permanent communities followed the Spanish code – plaza, church, tribunal, etc. The economy for improved. People planted palm tress, raised silk worms, abaca, cotton, tobacco, corn and indigo. Basco’s plan for the silkworm industry failed and his successor dropped the plan altogether.
  • Felix Berenguer Marquina “abandoned” his post and diverted the funds to develop Mindoro.  Valerio Bermudez won the election as the Politico-Military Head of the northern archipelago. His term was known as the “government of alcades.” He too neglected Batanes.
  • Fray Francisco Alban thought of transferring the people to Cagayan but dropped the plan.
  • Salaries failed to come, no money for street lamps, etc. People saw no reason for living or going elsewhere. Succeeding alcades tried their best. Unfortunately, economic development failed.
  • Government expenses exceeded the income. But in the middle of the 19th century, Manila government entered a new phase. Gobernadorcillo had his staff of three tenientes (deputies).

3. SUMUROY UPRISING

  • Sumuroy was head of the local garrison in Palapag, Samar. He was in love with a married woman. The priest sent the girl out of town.
  • Elsewhere, the Cavite shipyard has to build ships for the galleon trade and for the Coast Guard, who patrol the shores. This demanded a constant supply of workers, or polistas, and lumber gangs.  Alcaldes in Visays had to recruit a worker from each village and send them to Cavite. Sumuroy wanted to go. The priest was warned but he shook it off as a reaction for sending his lady love away.
  • Sumuroy went to the mission house at sundown and plunged the spear at the priest, killing him immediately. His accomplices swarmed the compound. The Jesuit missionaries that Sumuroy spared were ordered to leave town.
  • The rebellion spread to Masbate, Camiguin, Cagayan de Oro and Agusan. Sumuroy’s forces had gathered strength.
  • The governor of Zamboanga recruited the Christian Lutaos and dispatched them to Samar. They stormed the stronghold. The rebels were surprised with the attack. To obtain mercy, they turned against him and chopped off his head.
  • It was not a sign of nationalism because it had no political motive, more of a personal grievance.

4. PAMPANGA UPRISINGS

  • Governor Manrique de Lara fenced off Central Luzon to close possible escape routes for enemies of the state
  • The situado from Mexico covered only the anti-Muslim campaign and the losses from galleons that sank or were captured. The burden fell most heavily on the Pampango polistas and towns which loaned money and supplies that has reached intolerable levels.
  • A harsh foreman extended the work – construction of the galleon ships for four months.  The polistas were not paid and kept away from their farm.
  • The lumber crew rose against its foreman and burned the government hall. They had not been paid, they were hungry and wanted the tribute to be cancelled.
  • The governor formed a new lumber crew and these received their month’s food supply.
  • Field Marshall Francisco Manago was relying on his reputation and influence in his parley with the rebels. Instead they disarmed him and taken him hostage. But he later sided with the rebels.
  • Principalia joined the uprising. With fewer forces, the Governor finally agreed to the demands (see p. 118) and promised to pardon them.
  • The rebels accepted the terms and celebrated the peace. They became suspicious, elected new leaders, detained Manago and returned to their positions The rebels became unruly. One of them, Field Marshall Nicolas Minuit declared open rebellion
  • Governor de Lara promised to pardon and ordered 14, 00 pesos released to the rebels on the condition that they clean the rivers and swaps of the debris by the skirmishes. The leaders of the rebellion he ordered out of the province: Manago, Minuit, Cristobal Manago, while others were detained for other crimes. He succeeded in separating the leaders from their followers
  • Named new alcaldes for Pampanga and Bulacan and had 50 soldiers to maintain peace but this peace eluded the government.
  • In Pangasinan, Andres Malong raised the flag of rebellion. He killed the chief, captain and his wife.  He wanted to revive a pre-Hispanic society where no one would pay any tribute or work in the polo and fill their quota of their bandala.
  • He dispatched 2,000 native fighters to kill the native leader, Juan Macapagal. His emissaries failed. Macapal sent his family to Manila under the Governor’s protection.
  • Malong announced that not a single Spaniard was in Manila and that the Governor General was in prison. The city was in their hands. Pedro Lamboy, Malong’s mother went to Lingayen to cut off possible contact with the rebels.
  • Francisco de Esteybar, Spanished officer went to Ilocos. There, the Field Marshal of Banqued clashed against government troops and led his men on a rampage, razed, burned churches, ordered his people to wear pre-Hispanic clothes and led his men on a rampage, razed, burned churches, ordered his people to wear pre-Hispanic-clothes, etc.  Esteybar joined Malong’s forces. While they were in a skirmish fighting Spanish troops, he freed 1,500 captives and pursed Juan Magano, the leader of the Ilocano rebels.
  • Governor Manrique de Lara ordered Malong shot from behind with a placard saying “Por traodpr a Dios y al rey me ha condenado la ley” (the law condemned me as a traitor to God and to the King

5. PALARIS UPRISING

  • The call of volunteers to fight the British  failed because they lost respect for their alcalde mayor who was more interested in his commercial transactions.
  • The people strike back. They refused to pay the tribute, alleging that the Spanish government no longer had authority over them.  Gamboa, the alcalde mayor was only concerned for his safety. He dare not leave alone. He deputized Dominican Fray Andres Melendez to face the rebels.
  • The province rallied behind a local leader, Juan Palaris de la Cruz.
  • Anda, head of the resistance moments against the British came to apprehend Gamboa, support the priest and win back the rebels. Buoyed by the British victory in Manila, Palaris stiffened his demands: no tribute, no polo and the departure of all Spaniards from Pangasinan. They reached a compromise.
  • At Anda’s request, The Domican Prior Provincial proclaimed amnesty for all and people acknowledged the native Andres Lopez as Field Marshall.
  • To ratify the peace, went to Bacolor, Anda’s seat of government. Ammunition and baggage was intended for Anda was ambushed
  • Melendrez, ordered all the friars to leave. They could only continue their ministries if Anda appointed a Spanish alcalde mayor
  • The rebels continued to be defiant and held on to their arms. When initial peace failed, shooting began in earnest.
  • Spanish troops did not exploit their advantage but retreated to Bacolor. This tactical error emboldened Palaris, who threatened to kill the priests
  • Anda’s renewed offer of pardon even after sending his son as ransom was refused. He sent a new alcalde mayor, Jose Rafael de Azevado, who insisted on the return of arms. Manuel Arza, who crused Diego Silang’s uprising in Ilocos was coming to deal with the crisis in Pangasinan.
  • Palaris and his men fired their guns as a sign or renewed hostilities but this time the province did not support him. They had enough of fighting, their crops had been destroyed theirs lands remained untilled and they wanted to live in peace. Palaris has to intimidate the people before obtained their grudging cooperation.
  • Dominicans received the blame from Anda for being unable to squelch the uprising
  • Rebels apprehended Anda. Azevado tried saving him but they tried to clamor for his head. The Dominican priest hid him inside the church and refused to surrender him. The rebels burned the church. Palaris thought it was Melendrez who had frustrated him and assigned Negritos to kill him. But they were superstitious and feared of touching him or any of the priests.
  • As Palaris’s supplies dwindled, Azevado was freed. The tide was turned, Palaris was abandoned by his henchmen and led a solitary life.
  • Palaris snuck into his sister’s house to take a furtative meal but she ended up reporting him. He was sentenced to die. He was able to make amends with God at his execution.
  • The two year uprising was costly. What saved them was their demographic, Pangasinan was one of the richest provinces in the Philippines.
  • Palaris and his follwers were a numerical minority in the province. Most were women, children and non-combatants who actively provided a meal and lodging to rebels or fleeing friars (depending on whose side they were on). The Principales and associates of the friars went into hiding for fear that Palaris’s men would kill them.

6. THE SILANG UPRISING

  • Diego Silang led an uprising in Ilocos around the same time as the Palaris uprising.
  • Simon de Anda banned trade with the enemy. The alcalde mayor tried to corner the market provoking resentment from the principals. The timawa class was exasperated by the abuses of the government official, tribute and polo.  The British that occupied Manila, Santiago Orendain urged the Ilocanos to repudiate the Spanish government and accept British rule.
  • Silang took the oath of allegiance to the British Crown, which made him qualify as a traitor to the Spanish government.  He sent a letter on his grievances against the Spanish government drafted by Orendain to the British commander.
  • Silang led a crowd of about 2,000 armed men to Vigan to demand the end of tribute and polo and the ouster of the alcalde mayor
  • Augustinian Fray Tomas Millan accompanied by Bishop Bernardo Ustariz calmed the crowd. The dialogue ended with the promise that Zabala would leave the promise, which blunted the threat to kill him
  • Anda received a report that the crowd acted that way because of his ban on interprovincial trade. The Bishops said it was due to the fact that the alcalde mayor had not been an upright administrator.
  • Silang’s group grew and the friars recruited an army to counter it. The loyalist army tried to enter Vigan but were decisively trounced. Anda named a new alcalde mayor who did not take possession of his office
  • Silang was in control of Vigan and surrounding towns. His humanitarian decrees, administrative measures and curbing of follower’s abuses were not carried out because he was killed. He wanted to consolidate his power and subject the principals of Vigan and the friars to his control. He failed to convince the Augustinian friars of his good will and sincerity.
  •  Miguel Vicos and Pedro Becbec, initially Silang’s supporters but now victims of his excesses. They obtained the Bishop’s approval for their plan. They were pretending to be coming for their share of the community funds. When Silang turned his back, Vicos fired at him until all his bullets were finished. Silang died immediately.
  • Silang’s movement did not die immediately. Nicolas Carino and his widow, Gabriela Estrada de Silang continued the insurrection. They went house to house and held secret night vigils. By June worst riots happened in the four towns that supported Silang in the beginning.
  • Manuel de Arza swept the province and erected gallows to hang the rebels.
  • Silang’s revolt was complicated and cannot be described as simply an effort to throw off the Spanish yoke. Three groups were involved: 1) Principales- enjoyed exemption from tribute and polo, just wanted to get rid of the alcalde mayor. 2) Timawa, ordinary free people- formed the bulk of Silang’s force by their rebel leader. They could not put up with abuses condoned by their rebel leader. They had no reason to continue supporting Silang when they realized he no longer promoted their welfare. 3) Augustinian friars- never reconciled Silang’s pretensions and could have been victims of his personal vendetta against them.
  • Diego Silang knew how to lead but he failed to satisfy his followers.

 

PART V

1. THE DUTCH THREAT

  • Dutch won political independence from Spain, but Philip II closed Lisbon to them. They were forced to find ways to continue their trade. They equipped their own expedition to the Spice Islands.
  • They organized the Vereinigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (Dutch East India Company) or VOC. But Manila stood in the way, and they wanted to remove this block in their future plans.
  • The Philippines, poor in economic resources did not interest the Dutch. They wanted to oust the Spaniards from Manila, blockade Manila against Chinese shipping and direct the Chinese goods to Dutch-controlled trading centers and urge Spanish’s enemies to rise against her.
  • Oliver van Noort and Lambert Biesman were able to anchor at Cavite but Manila put up a fight. The first of what is known as the “Dutch Wars.”
  • Admiral Francois de Wittert hoping to take Cavite, but he found it sufficiently defended and he changed his mind. He intercepted Chinese junks. The uninterrupted arrival of the Chinese was the lifeline of the colony. Governor Juan de Silva decided to be rid of the Dutch. A small fleet surprised Wittert who immediately anchored. Spaniards took his flagship after three hours of carnage. He sailed out in search of Wittert’s remaining ships.
  • Silva set himself and everyone else in the colony to feverish work for an all-out offensive. However, the Dutch were a step ahead of him. They surprised Iloilo and wiped out a third of the troops.
  • By themselves alone, the Spaniards in Manila were not strong against the Dutch and Silva called on the Portugese for help. The reinforcements had not arrived. Silva decided to sail halfway to the Moluccas and await them there. The fleet arrived in Malacca but wisely the Dutch avoided battle. Silva suddenly fell sick and died.
  • The series of skirmishes with the Dutch involved Joris van Spielerbergen, who thought the best thing was to attack.
  • The Spaniards are given some respite and by now, Silva’s forces were back in Manila. But boats were in poor condition. The senior member of the Audencia who took over on Silva’s death correctly guessed that Spielerbergen would first seek out Iloilo and he sent Captain Diego de Quinones. The latter ordered logs piled up on the beat, trenches dug, and put up breastworks. It was just in time.
  • The Dutch arrived and the Spaniards engaged in furious hand-to-hand combat at which they excelled, forcing the Dutch to disengage.
  • Like Wittert, he thought he would have plenty of room to maneuver if the Spaniards came out and at the same time, blockade Manila. Bad weather forced back two outgoing galleons signaled incoming galleons at one of the harbors of Tayabas (Quezon) thus eluding Spielerbergen who had been waiting to pounce on this fortune.
  • The battle began. (p. 132-133). Of the eight Dutch vessels, two sank three were captured, one caught fire, and two escaped.
  • The Dutch shifted to blockading Manila and intercepting the Chinese trading junks as a better tactic to bring the Spanish colony to its knees. Dutch avoided a fight.
  • The Dutch naturally wanted to keep their honor unsullied. But their system of waiting for the Chinese traders in the first quarter of the 17th century was giving them a bad them. They discontinued the practice. The Spaniards no longer wanted for the Chinese boats, but sailed to Formosa (Twaiwan) themselves.
  • The Dutch took Malacca from the Portuguese and they had an open sea to the Philippines to intercept the galleons ferrying from Mexico.
  • Dutch’s supplies had run low. Also, the Treaty of Munster ended the Hispano-Dutch rivalry in the Far East. The Dutch were to stay away from the Philippines while Spain from Batavia (Jakarta). It was more honored in breach than in observance.
  • The Dutch seemed to have always lost to the Spaniards. To fight them, the Spaniards needed boats. They needed lumber and men. The concentration of mouths to feed in one zone completely depleted the scarce food supplies or prices went up, leading a number of polistas to escape. The Dutch threat disrupted the galleon trade.

2. THE BRITISH OCCUPATION

  • Philippines was unprepared for a foreign attack. The key officials did not know what to do. Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo y Vierya showed neither military sense or initiative.  When British arrive he panicked.
  • The invasion had no strategic importance for the European war.
  • Admiral Samuel Cornish and Brigadier General William Draper sailed into Manila. Manila, isolated from European politics, had not received any news of an outbreak of war and the demand for the surrender of the city. Manila raised five military units that were not trained or disciplined.
  • The British force landed unopposed in Malate. Had Manila tried, it could have driven the enemy back right away. More British forces landed and occupied the stone churches.
  • Caesar Fallet led a hastily organized force but the enemy repulsed it.
  • Archbishop-Governor Rojo had convoked a meeting attended by opinionated men who agreed on nothing. Santiago de Orendian chief government scribe was looking for a chance to avenge himself against his accusers. After a disastrous assault, he cowardly fled. Hr died in Tonkin (Vietnam).
  • Francisco Enriquez de Villacorta faced up to the British to protest against their abuses. Accused by Orendain of maintaining contact with the resistance under Anda. The British condemned him to die by garrote. He escaped to join Anda but when peace returned, he claimed he also had as much right as the resistance leader to be governor general of the Philippines.
  • Manuel Galban y Ventura sought safety in the Franciscan convent in Lilio, Laguna. He managed to join the resistance under Anda, although he continued sowing intrigue to depose the latter from his command.
  • Francisco Leandro de Viana, Audencia Fiscal had filed legal charges against Orendain. Archbishop to leave military matters in the hands of the Sergeants Major of Manila and Cavite.
  • Tired of humiliations and vexations, Viana fled and was welcomed by Anda.
  • Rojo had enough sense to send Anda to Bulacan with the title “Deputy Governor and Captain General of the Philippines” to keep the provinces loyal to Spain. Anda ordered the silver conveyed to his headquarters, which was successfully executed because of the help of the Franciscans. Not a moment too soon Cornish sent his fastest frigates to confiscate it.
  • Manila fell to the British because Rojo failed to organize defenses, accepted British demands, satisfied their exactions, ussyed orders to depose Anda (p. 136).
  • Anda proved to be the hero. With what he had received from Manila, the situado that he had saved from British hand and constant help, he manged to organize an army and provided it with uniforms and ammunition. His men intercepted the food convoys on their way to Manila and his special hit-and-run squads harassed the British.
  • The Chinese, unsure of things, apparently indifferent, kept their shops open, paid the British perquisites and contributions imposed on them. Anda ordered all Chinese to be expelled or executed.
  • British took Manila despite promises to respect life and property. Rojo was waiting with a white flag, ready to surrender the City. After taking the city, the British commanded that it hand over Dawsonne Drake, an official of the British East Company.
  • “Country trade” in the Philippines was suggested. Manufactured goods such as spices, pearls, sea slugs, and other commodities Chinese wanted were exchanged. This meant looking for a base or port in the Philippines.
  • The Company sent Alexander Darymple . Manila was awash wih Mexican silver. Anda’s prompt action advised by the friars, kept silver from British hands.
  • Drake stumbled upon a consolation. Sultan Alimmuddin I was in Manila prison at this time.  But evidence of his growing anti-Christian attitude began to pile up and befor he could do any damage, he was imprionsed.
  • Drake resotred him to his sultanate and in return, allow a British trading post.
  • Anda might have expelled the Brtish in deue time. Europe signed the treaty of peace at Hebertsburd, which ended the Seven Years’ War.
  • Archbishop Rojo remaind a British prisoner died with military honors.
  • The Philippines was practically ruined.

3. ECONOMIC DISRUPTION

  • British forces occupied Manila for about 15 months. But this short period was enough to devastate a colony that had never been economically sound
  • British presence disrupted the galleon trade and the annual situado was cut off for five years, leaving the colony in critical condition.
  • Livestock, which served as food during the enemy occupation, disappeared almost totally. Bandits roamed freely, hunger and disease stalked the land.
  • British victory shattered the “myth” of Spanish invincibility. Spaniards lost prestige in the eyes of the indigenous population.
  • Revenue from the American colonies used to bolster the royal treasury but the shipments of cash and kind to Spain notably diminished.  The Spanish-American trade decreased over the years.
  • Spain’s colonial trade decreased by as much as 75% in one hundred years. Colonies are self-liquidating. They inevitably form their own identity and clamor for recognition of what they claim they have become. A liberal policy will accept this and avoid violent confrontation. This ends in the loss of the colony
  • The newly self-conscious Americanos enjoyed economic prosperity better than their peninsular counterparts. They saw no need to continue trading with Spain.
  • Bad weather wrought havoc on Spanish farming, and Span was forced to borrow from foreign creditors. When foreign debt increased, Spain unilaterally declared bankruptcy. Foreign capitalists refused to honor and continued to lend capital further loading it to an unbearable foreign debt.
  • Francisco Leandro de Viana, Fiscal of Manila Audiencia suggested corresponding solutions. 1) Crown had to decide whether to abandon the Philippines or continue to rule it. 2) Better salaries so the officials won’t be tempted to enrich themselves to the detriment of the public good 3) Philippines should develop a modern system of maritime commerce àopening the Manila-Cadiz route around Cape Good Hope and produced sufficient products for trade.
  • The colonial policies that the new regime adopted provided the seed that ripened in colonial self-efficiency. Spain wanted to solve the Philippine problem and make the colony economically viable. It was difficult to balance the colonial budge or diminish Manila’s annual deficit
  • Richard Baggage- silk worm industry to: 1) productivity 2) retention of Mexican silver 3) increase in government revenue
  • Fr. Jose Calvo submitted his plan: 1)Spain to exploit Philippine natural resources 2) direct trade with Spain 3) exploit local gold mines  4) oblige people to raise cinnamon and spices
  • Englishman, Nicholas Norton Nichols initiated two projects: 1) cinnamon export industry 2) direct Manila-Cadiz route. He died with no one to continue his project.
  • Jose Raon as Governor General- lifted the ban against foreign shipping in the country, amended earlier “Ordinances of Good Government” his predecessors promulgated and expelled the Chinese
  • The problem was that people came to the Philippines to invest and once they recovered their funds, sailed back to Mexico or Spain, leaving Philippines as poor and underdeveloped as before.

4. CORPORATE REFORMS

  • Besides Raon, two other governors understood the terms of the colonial crisis: Simon Anda y Salazar and Jose Basco y Vargas
  • Consulado de Manila, an autonomous body intended to promote the insular trade and acts as the voice of the Philippine traders competing with those of Spain. Members were exclusively professional traders in Manila. Indios were excluded from this elite group.
  • Anda finally accepted his appointment as Governor General. He reorganized the colonial administration, jailed his predecessor, Raon for malversation of funds, tried to ban the use of local idioms, expanded the colonial fleet and promoted agriculture. He also renewed commercial pacts with the Dutch and increased tariff rates to improve the economy. He died six years later.
  • Basco was the one who certainly boosted the economy of the Philippines. He is supposed to be addressed with “Su Senoria” (Your Lordship) but he was spoken to as “Usted”, a polite term for anybody.
  • Selfish conservatives in Manila tried to obstruct the new governor’s initiatives. A series of denuciations, known as “Basconiana” floated for a year.
  • His government program included an impressive list of projects aimed for: peace, happiness, harmony and justice. His most important was the Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais (Patriotic Economic Society). It took three years for it to be started. Basco pursued the idea in the face of centuries-old inertia. The Patriotic Society organized committees to promote research and old projects in natural history.
  • The Patriotic Society organized committees to promote research and bold projects in natural history, agricultural and rural economy. Its members committed themselves to study and submit reports of their new knowledge and experiments. Cash subsidies and prizes were available for new ventures, especially for improved cultivation of export products.
  • The Philippine Patriotic Society was first organized overseas because of the distance it enjoyed more freedom of action. It was apolitical since missionaries were involved, traditional apostolic reasons strongly encouraged it.
  • The Society enjoyed its greatest success in the first two year of its existence but harvests failed, plans were frustrated, old rivalries and the new Society resurfaced. Nonetheless it benefited the colony.

5. TOBACCO MONOPOLY

  • The real breakthrough in economic development was achieved through state action. After several attempts to increase government revenue, the Crown decreed a monopoly on the cultivation and sale of tobacco. Governor Raon declared that the project is unrealistic because of the low quality plant and there are no factories. Anda tried something similar with samples from Mexico but Manila had no funds even if the salaries, including Anda’s were halved.
  • Convinced of the feasibility, the Manila Audencia agreed to introduce the monopoly. They enlisted the help of the missionaries. The King approved a loan of 50, 000 pesos to start the project.
  • They raised the plant in small plots with an army to supervise them. The government purchased all the tobacco that had been raised and designated Bulacan as the tobacco regions. The plan succeeded and other areas were declared exclusive tobacco regions – would grow only tobacco to be sold to the government.
  • The monopoly was a success. Philippines was able to send 150, 000 pesos to Spain besides liquidating its debt to the crown.
  • The new bureaucracy in place: On the top, the Director/ Operations Manager, who is responsible for sufficient supplies. Then there are personnel with faculties to suspend useless or counterproductive measures
  • Leaf was submitted to aforadores who graded it and paid for the good ones which they deposited in a warehouse. There are three officials in charge: 1)official de libros– recorded transaction 2)fiel de peso– weighed and classified the leaf 3)fiel aministrador– storage and distribution. Then there is also the tazmeadores who inspected the fields and estimated the future harvests.
  • Manila already had three cigar factories but Basco closed them and opened government factories instead. There was an army of employees who worked in these factories. They are generally women who rolled the leaf, cut the ends and pack them.
  • The monopoly had to solve three problems: contraband, the need to increase the supply to meet the growing demand.
  • Smuggling was never totally eradicated. Basco strengthen the police with a corps of mounted troops (resguardo) to overlook small individual plots for private consumption. Initial success led to a constant demand for sufficient supplies of tobacco. People needed tobacco, and it was not easily available as formerly so they resorted to smuggling. Everyone cheated everyone else.
  • Government insolvency worsened over the years, and was one of the factors that led to the Cavite Mutiny.
  • Spain’s enemy took advantage of the discontentment and made them rise up in arms.  Governor Rafael Izquierdo reported that the increasing public debt, government losses of revenue, and the neglect of the administration in the tobacco monopoly.
  • The monopoly benefited the colony but it was no longer a financial burden to the royal treasury. People engaged in internal commerce
  • Difficulties persisted as expenses mounted. The resguardo had expanded and had become too costly to maintain.
  • This uneven policy strengthened the arguments to abolish it, however, some were willing to overlook the monopoly’s negative effects because of its advantages.
  • The Crown allowed private manufacture and sale of tobacco. The monopoly ended.

6. AFTER THE MONOPOLY

  • Free cultivation and sale of tobacco did not lead to the collapse of the industry. A private enterprise Companila General de Tabacos de Filipinas (Tabacalera), invested 3 million
  • Spanish “arbitritas” and “poyectistas” proposed the establishment of commercial companies. The problem was that Spain did not have finished products that could have competed with the other European powers.
  • The Royal Company of Caracas was established to improve the cacao industry. It did for a while but its fortunes quickly declined.
  • The Royal Philippine Company was established capitalized to continue and expand the Caracas Company, which aimed to improve the economy. The Company directors sent out artisans and teachers to play an important role in the colony’s growth.
  • The Consulado feared its dire effects and strongly opposed the plan but the government stood firm. The main task was to promote Philippine agriculture and its industrial growth, and procure Oriental goods for shipment to Spain.
  • There were possibilities of producing anil and spices. Silk did not prosper but cotton fared slightly better.  Cotton sold well in China that the Company sent a commission to Ilocos to stimulate the cotton industry.
  • The other plans were set aside. The opening of Manila attracted foreign shipping, which brought goods from other Asian countries and sailed away with Philippine sugar and anil, two products that stimulated agriculture. It was a strong incentive to make them work and lose their “lazy” image.
  • The Royal Company Philippine Company enjoyed various privileges and exemptions in exchange for its obligation to promote the export of sugar or spices; build boat; and put defenses against piracy.
  • The Company purchased the estate in Calaunan, Laguna where Francisco Salgado had performed his agricultural experiments.
  • The Philippines opened to international shipping and harbors were filled foreign boats laden with consumer goods at relatively cheap prices. The Philippines had imposed monopolies on various products: gunpowder, commercial and industrial patent, tithes on rural lands exploited by foreigners, the lottery, etc. It also imposed a heavier tax on the Chinese.
  • The government retained the monopoly on gunpowder, wine, liqueur, opium, cockfighting, tobacco. To make up for the deficit, taxes were imposed on several indigenous products. The new system seemed to be the most natural thing, with hardly any negative effects and brought in as much as the old sources of revenue.

PART VI

1. MODERN ECONOMIC PROGRESS

  • Changes and improvements in technology as seen in these instances:
    • Governor General Pascual Enrile y Alcedo started a road-building program
    • Steam gunboats appeared about 20 years later to put an end to the Muslim raids
    • Telegraph lines were laid between Manila and Cavite, just in time for the mutiny
    • Cable lines and regular mail service connected Manila to Hong Kong and Cadiz
    • The opening of Suez Canal halved travel time between Spain and the Philippines
  • Foreign boats came to trade using a Malayan dummy even before Manila officially opened to international shipping
  • Trade with America and England increased à exports and imports increased
  • First American Consul- Andrew Sharp;  First British Consul- John William
  • First British Consul in Iloilo, Nicholas Loney built a stone warehouse and invested in the sugar export. It was cheaper and more convenient to export it from Iloilo. Only one shipping needed.
  • Iloilo was a textile center and rice exporter. Most of exports initially came from textiles until Loney killed the local industry by bringing cheap manufactured cotton textiles.
  • He promoted the sugar industry, which people focused on and in turn neglected its two main industries.  Iloilo lost its economic importance and became a link between local producers and the foreign importers.
  • Iloilo had four factors for a successful enterprise: 1) experienced plantation managers 2) capital 3) accessible agricultural labor 4) basic infrastructures
  • Before Loney came, rice harvests were good. The population kept pace with the production.
  • Chinese textile merchants shifted to sugar through land speculation. It was easy to grab since there was inadequate laws. People could just occupy and cultivate lands without legal claims.
  • New law decreed that land should be registered in:  10 hectares >- town government;  10 hectares <- provincial government
  • Some government officials became rich overnight while the claimants obtained the land titles rather easily.
  • Lands in Iloilo became scarce and entrepreneurs went farther in the interior. They expanded claims to land that have been cleared in order to save the cost and labor of opening virgin territories.
  • Six landowners in Negros had titles to sugar. Pampanga was the same with the elites in Negros. They were almost always elected as gobernacillo.
  • Sugar, a season crop, needed a huge manpower, which was in short supply in Negros.  Landowners devised various means such as hiring contractual workers from other provinces, and giving out cash advances to migrant workers (usually leads to debt bondage).
  • Corporal punishment and other forms of physical abuse were heaped on the hapless laborer who tried to escape unbearable work conditions (were also forced back)
  • Sugar was used to purchase rice, which was no longer available as much as before. Rice imports rose and periods of rice shortage occurred periodically.
  • In Bicol, Abaca was the best among the fibers for cordage in the world market before binder twine came.
  • Abaca could grow in small plots, and did not need extensive lands. A small landless farmer could agree with a landowner to plant in a small sector of the estate and earn money. The landlord and laborer traditionally halved the proceeds but profits for the latter decreases accordingly (taken on credit, must transport bundles himself, raised other crops in between)
  • Migrants were attracted by the new opportunities and came to won several plots of lands. Only one of five Albay native families owned land. The rest worked on others’ lands.
  • The problem was its dependence on the world market and the arrival of synthetic fibers killed the industry.
  • Chinese were the foreign group that played a major role in Philippine economy. Government policy wavered between toleration and expulsion, died away in the middle of the 19th century.
  • Chinese over the years spread all over the islands, which prompted complaints from Jesuit missionaries. They slowed the conversion of mountain tribes in Mindanao.
  • They acted as middlemen, retailed imports and collected exports
  • The practice of paying before the loan matured and take a bigger loan bound the creditor and debtor in a long-term credit relationship. There was an assurance of capital.
  • The economic prominence of the British and Chinese was due to the practice of towkay. They hired agents for the retail outlets in the province. It was beneficial since the boss did not have to pay but he was able to corner the market in that area.
  • The mark of distinction no longer came from the descent of aristocracy but material wealth.

2. ADOPTING THE ROMAN ALPHABET

  • Pre-Hispanic Islanders had their own script and writing used only for commercial purposes. They had the ability to recite from memory. This versification “kumintang” was preserved through centuries of recitation.
  • The Friars were learning Tagalog. On the other hand, the Indios learned and wrote the Roman alphabet. More than ability was their desire (aficion) to read books.
  •  The local wielders impressed the Jesuit Pedro Chirino that he hired a number as scribes who copied books.
  • The Dominicans were the first book printers (movable printing press). They saw the need for books to aid in their evangelical tasks. Fray Blancas de San Jose printed the first book, Doctrina Christiana in Spanish, Tagalog and Chinese.
  • Printing was costly, only with royal munificence can authors have their works printed.
  • Fr. Blancas made the first printer but with the valuable aid of a Chinese convert, Juan de Vera not for money but to serve God
  • Augustinians also had a printing press in Lumbao, Pampanga but it printed less books because of the high costs.
  • Jesuits also had a printing press of their own. When they were expelled from the country, the  Archbishop acquired its excellent library and good printing press, which had fonts of various size and printed less errors. It had all the necessary instruments, molds, plates and equipment.
  • It was too soon to expect Native-borns to publish books although with the exception of Tomas Pinpin, who learned how to print but also published his book entitled, “Book on How Tagalogs May Learn Spanish.”
  • The Indios did not want to spend their limited financial resources for something not of prime importance to them. Plus book publishers ran the risk of losing money on their editions.
  • Did not develop a culture of the pen. The pen clarified ideals and preserved the traditions.
  • The conquest implied a new culture, new ideas that enriched the local society.  Spanish linguistic derivatives were merged with the local idioms.

3. NEW TOWNS AND PARISHES

  • Philippines was making progress compare to its Asian neighbors. Better peace and order, health, and economic development increased the population.
  • The increased population is reflected in the number of new municipalities or civil towns with their own parishes created at this time.  Basic requirement for a full-fledged municipality was to have a church and priest’s residence, tribunal, and school. Parishes were independent of their matrices.
  • Bishop Vincente Barreiro made his first visitation as diocese and made his report on a number of good towns. Although there are some poor churches that had impassable roads or was made of nipa and bamboo.
  • Only a few natives were assigned as pastor in their parishes because most forgot what their decency.
  • Bishop Francisco Gainza asked to increase the stipends for some native priests, so they can live with certain decency. Initially, there was no common rate for the stipends although a scale was worked out to everyone’s satisfaction
  • Recollects were in a worse economic plight since their annual stipend was less than minimum to raise a settlement. It collected almost no dues, it only continued to exist because the other Recollect missions and parishes contributed to its upkeep.

4. SOME SOLUTIONS

  • Officials had to look around for other sources of revenue.
  • Everyone in the colony was obliged to pay their tribute (cedula personal), according to income.
  • Formerly, the cabeza de barangay was a person of prestige and social distinction. He could correct the errors and shortcoming and penalize the locals if they defaulted on the tribute.
  • People avoided appointment to the barangay’s office, limited to the doubly hateful task of collecting tribute and recruiting polistas. The cabezas remained poor hardly benefited by the economic prosperity beginning to change the Philippine local scene.
  • Cabezas had to prepare the lists of cedula payers, provincial tax, polistas and comprehensive census of his jurisdiction.
  • Principalia had a hand in nominating or choosing the cabeza. They could be appointed themselves but the benefits could not compensate for its inconveniences and even material losses.  As a result, the underprivileged, illiterate and ignorant of Castilian, were usually forced to accept the appointment.

1) He was forced to use part of the collect to pay the scribe. Even with the scribe, the barangay had to account where the people had gone.

2) Town residence formed only a small portion but the majority lived elsewhere or could not be located. This is due to the fact it was easy to change one’s residence form town to another.

  • The two reasons above are why the quota isn’t met. Other reasons include: inefficient collection and the personal qualities and abilities of the cabezas.
  • On several occasions, the government had to delay or even cancel the ceduals due to bad harvests and bad weather. Despite industrial growth, good harvests and good weather, the richer provinces owed the treasury of unpaid cedulas.
  • To recruit polistas or collect the tribute, the barangay chief had to hike three times a year
  • The problem lay in the system of collection. It should be part of the provincial governor’s responsibilities. The provincial heads were overwhelmed with work that it was “humanly impossible” for them to carry out their duties (e.g. protection, public health, just government, tech the people Castilian and supervise the collection)
  • Collectors should be directly under government supervision, appointed for only six months. Any deficit of at most 5% should be charged against the principalia
  • Only a stricter and more frequent visitation would correct the defects in the province. There were also not enough personnel that could be trained.
  • **Area distinctions aren’t clear. People left during the time of tribute. It was hassle to go to the mountains.

5. AN UNCHANGED SOCIAL PICTURE

  • The first Manila Synod banned slavery but people argued on the just price of a slave.
  • There are three kinds of slaves: 1) sold by parents 2) war captives 3) under judicial sentence
  • Fighting and uprising continued because the law failed to contain the “Indios Cimmarones” (fugitives in the mountain from the law)
  • Slavery in the Philippines did not leave a stigma. The influence of Christianity stopped slaveryà doctrine on human dignity wherein Just claim to their work as slaves, but no right to claim the person
  • **The tasks need not a lifetime to perform. No substantial change, not a source of income
  • Abusive government officials and incompetent appointees were supposed to be the ones to keep peace and justice, but the idea was seldom realized.
  • Traveling to the mountains was a hassle for them
  • Some alcade mayors appropriated money, alleging that government “owed” the people
  • There were good alcades as well who reinforced the military
  • Priests had inadequate financial support. Income was unstable due to disasters that upset the budget allocation.
  • Priests invested in different things such as galleon trade ad silver mining industry
  • Priests’ main problem was not sexual difficulties but GREED. 1) Appreciate a heftier benefaction 2)Brought a corpse to different hospitals to get Church funds
  • Parents wanted sons to live with priest and grow up as choir members or scribes wo were exempt from polo. Also, they learned useful things.
  • Tribute was a sign of vassalage to the Crown
  • Poor tribute payers were burdened to fill the quota of the cabeza de barangay. When pay in kind were made to give more.
  • Absence on Sunday mass earned Indios lashes while the Chinese were spared of this “ignominy”
  • The Chinese not only got gambling license whose fees was used for the upkeep of the forts, but also gave tips to the City officials. Even those who did not gamble were exacted a fee.

6. COLONIAL SCHOOLS

  • Fr. Juan Ribera wrote watered down lectures on theology to help priests. It became popular and he was asked to write a second set. àinformal beginnings to Philippine colonial schools
  • Manila burghers wanted a school for their boys
  • The Jesuits were sent to look into the situation. The Governor General needed their help. He asked the Crown to subsidize a college, which assigned in the care of the Jesuits
  • The Royal Fiat was not enough to start a school, there was no source of income.
  • Regular attendance should be obligatory and the students should reside in “seminario” (boarding school) for better discipline and foster vocations to priesthood
  • Fr. Diego Garcia, Visitor of the new Philippine Jesuit mission in hopes of earning, obtained a coconut plantation and leased to the Chinese traders
  • College of San Jose opened. Youth who studied included Pedro Tello (Jesuit), nephew of Governor-General and Antonio de Morga (Audencia oidor)
  • They learned to pray, write and public speaking
  • Invited only men but mothers wanted to be able to watch their sons so they appealed to the Governor’s wife
  • Esteban Rodriguez d Figureroa failed to conquer Magindanao. His will bequeath his estate to his widow and young daughter. If they die, it will become obra pia (pious trust fund).
  • The two perished when galleon sank and the estates ended up in favor of the Jesuits in Mexico, who donated them to the Philippine Jesuits.
  • Basic Jesuit academic program includes knowledge of Latin, poetry and metaphysics
  • Madrid and Rome believed Philippines was premature to have a full-fledged university. Better informed they approved the plan.
  • There was a lack of trained lawyers in the Philippines. Fr. Pedro Murillo Velarde taught canon and civil law.
  • Dominicans protested to abolish professorships at the College of Santo Tomas. But Fr. Murillo’s lectures was already producing results
  • Jesuits suggested to the Audencia to establish similar professorships at the College of Santo Tomas
  • UST was a free boarding school or metizos, Indios and “Capistas” (working students and domestic servants)
  • Fray Diego de Santa Maria gathered orphan boys and taught them what became the “College of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul”.
  • Juan Alonso Jeronimo Guerrero also got abandoned orphans and taught them Christianity from alms of benefactors. He gave his boys to Fray Diego when he was about to die.
  • Soon the College had 200 boys. With the encomienda and subsidy from the Dominican order allowed them to train the boys. The college was later renamed to College of San Juan de Letran
  • The school for girls was College of Santa Potentiana. It was more like a hostel.
  • College of Santa Isabel was a center of basic academic training of girls in Santa Potentiana
  • College was not academic but a community of persons of like interests. It later developed to become primarily an institution of higher education and academic training.
  • ***Schools for co-priests. Beginnings of Christianity was learned in school

 

PART VII

1. THE RETURN OF THE JESUITS

  • The dean of the oidores of the Audencia wanted to elevate the university studies to a level equal to that in Spain. All Indios and mestizos were of limited talent and hopelessly lazy.
  • Academic studies posed a danger instead of promoting social benefits. If Filipinos were more inclined over physical science which government did not exercise as much care as over their moral and political training, no reform was needed
  • Most preferred a bachelor’s degree, only a few went into further studies. With a bachelor’s degree, they hoped to be treated as principalia exempt from the tribute and polo. Instead, they became petty litigants or scribes.
  •  Only 1% criollo attended school. Native-born priests and lawyers were ignorant of the law and the Castillian language, thus failing to get the respect of others.
  • The Pope restored Society of Jesus to its original status. King Ferdinard VII sent them as missionaries to mountain tribes of Mindanao.
  • European powers had been showing interest in the southern Philippines. Spain consolidated her hold with Christian missions
  • Jesuits replaced the Recollect friars who were too few to fully evangelize the isaland
  • They revived Escuela Pia, which was renamed to Escuela Municipalà raised it to a secondary school “Ateneo Municipal”
  • Isabella II’s reign marked liberals and conservatives fighting for power. Power changes was constant so no continuity in policies
  • Opening of Suez Canal cuts the travel time
  • Fr. Cuevas added that the best school system would be useless if there were no properly trained teachers. The Jesuits came up with a second known as the Normal School for Primary School Teachers. They would spread Catholic Faith.
  • There one school for boy and another for girls in each town.
  • Castilian was the medium of instruction. With one language, it was easier for them to unite and spread anti-Christian propaganda.  Different local idioms kept the provinces disunited; hence schools should continue to teach those idioms.
  • Dismissing loss of faith and rebellion, Castilian was a tool to push the colony forward through learning.The Board agreed with Fr. Cuevas on the Castilian language.

2. THE PROBLEM WITH NATIVE-BORN PRIESTS

  • The Patronato’s responsibility was to spread the Gospel to their colonies
  • In the beginning, only the foreign missionaries carried out the task of preaching the Gospel. It was advantageous but it also proved to be a hindrance to the full growth of the Church and formation of Philippine-born priests.
    • The Dominican Prior Provincial objected the ordination of native candidate priests because nothing good can come out of it and they were ineffective preachers.
    • Too new to the faith, they were likely to teach erroneous faith.
    • Crown insisted on having a say on who could serve as priests, clearly a tactic to assert its independence from Rome.
    • The ban on native priests was extended to the Philippines. It was disrespect to the ecclesiastical estate.
    • Pedro Sancho was an exemption.
    • The idea of promoting native vocations did not die. The sheer need for priests forced some of the ordinations.
    • Philippine tribal leadership was for their personal benefits. The concept of a priest exclusively serve God and its neighbor was accepted
    •  Council instructed Archbishop to do all they can to aid Philippine priests. The latter called to attention the Indios lack of inclination to moral and theological studies
    • Fray Gaspar de San Agustin and Fr. Juan Jose Delgado trained them in Domincan and Jesuit universties.
    • When Jesuits were expelled, the Archbishop ordained the native candidates

3. PEDRO PELAEZ

  • He was Vicar Capticular who appointed Fr. Francisco Champas to vacancy. The Governor-General disapproved and Pelaez protested but his appeal was denied.
  • He had Spanish parents and studied Philosophy and Theology from UST.
  • He believed defended the natives whom deserve respect. He was a succesful young priest with untarshined moral integrity and outstanding writings.
  • Fray Franciso de Villas San Lorenzo was appointed for the position but Champas already filled the vacancy. This was assumed a misinterpretation of Royal Orders
  • Jesuits returned and Christianized the missionaries but the Recollects want to be properly compensated.
  • There were two appeals for Champas although Villa’s appointment was vitiated.

4. JOSE APOLONIO BURGOS

  • His mentor, Fr. Pelaez died unexpectedly.
  • Burgos took up Philosophy, Theology and Canon Law in UST
  • His priestly life hardly begun when he was executed via garrote veil
  • An anonymous pamphlet went around Manila. The style and content was only from Fr. Burgos who knew Church law and the situation of the native-clergy.
  • He said Filipinos can indeed perform routine duties in the church.
  • He added that there was an impressive list of native born priest although they were criollos, not Indios. There was a lack of incentives for native priests.
  • Lt. Gen. Carlos de la Torre arrived as Governoer-General
  • Students inspired by Pelaez created a “Reform Committee.” The lay section was headed by Joquin Pardo de Tarva who wanted assimilation with Spain while the clergy section was headed by Burgos who aimed the secularization as their right.
  • There was also the Young Liberal Leaders of Buencamino
  • Philippine priests insisted on the legal issues and justice to their cause. Burgos later wrote signed articles.
  • De La Torre created the “De La Torre  Guides” He started to censor the mail.
  • Buencamino was jailed. Burgos became his tutor for the classes he missed.
  • Izquierdo replaced de la Torre.

5. THE CAVITY MUTINTY

  • Military uprising exploded in Cavite
  • Pedro Manonson invited Sergeant Bonifacio Octavo to sign a piece of paper if he wanted to join an insurrection being planned
  • Francisco Zaldua had a blank piece of paper from Fr. Burgos, Fr. Gomez, Fr. Zamora and others to recruit volunteers to join his cause
  • Octavo signed the paper and was going to lead the soldiers
  • Hours before the uprising, Octavo had second thoughts, and took a banca to escape to Bataan, although the government caught him later on
  • GOMBURZA and Zaldua were executed by garrote veil
  • Three versions:
  • Gold- “dineros son algo” (money is something)
    • 1)Jose Montero Vidal- Spanish soldier was visiting a Tagalog girl who told him about the mutiny. He was able to alert the government
    • 2)Antonio M Regidor- Friars bribed the soldier who knew beforehand. They told they told the government, proving the importance of their role in the Philippines
    • ERRORS: He confused the identities of the friar plotters and wrong date of Izquierdo becoming Governor General.
    • 3)Trinidad Hermenegildo Pardo de Tarva- His account was badly translated from Spanish-English-Spanish.
    • – Izquierdo cancelled the exemption from the tribute that wage earners in the Cavite shipyard. There were doubts if they could recruit enough people for the mutiny.
    • -His uncle, Joaquin Pardo de Tarva was implicated. Hedid not have enough time to plot an uprising nor the personality
  • Octavo’s testimony: Zaldua announced that the mutiny was intended to kill all the Spaniards. The provisional government will be presided over by Fr. Burgos until a king was elected. He added that Fr. Burgos had collected funds for the mutiny. There was also a blank paper, with the letterhead “Philippine Army”
  • Octavo’s account was hearsay since he did not witness the mutiny since he escaped.
  • Actual events of the mutiny:
    • Jan 21- shooting around Fort San Felipe. The Cpatain was felled but varius men were wounded so they had to retreat. Those who volunteered to report the incident were killed. Steamships and gunboats in Cnacao Bay arrived.
    • Jan 22- Marines kept firing at the mutineers. The latter occupied the fort but not the arsenal. The number of mutineers lessened considerably.
    • Third day (success!)- Rifle fire continued. Artillery began to move. At “Viva Espana!”, forces broke in and easily recaptured the fort.
  • Izquierdo was not surprised that a mutiny should have occurred. It involved foreigners and Filipinos (native clergy, educated class, etc) unhappy over their situation.
  • Izquierdo blamed government neglect. Tobacco farmers were discontented because they weren’t paid.
  • Money, which could have been used for more important needs was used to rebuild the peninsula after the revolution
  • Criminals were also untouched because of the bribes

6. POSSIBLE FOREIGN INTERVENTION

  • Germany loitered in southern seas even before the Cavity. They smuggled arms.
  • The British, in the guise of hydrophobic studies, gave supply of combustibles and delivered the correspondence/mail
  • Intervention in Cavite Mutiny was not explicit:
  • Hong Kong paper, London and China, published “The Philippine Insurrection,” which contained news of the outbreak of a serious military sedition.
  • Madrid, liberate the exploited island
  • In Washington DC, Captain Francis Norton reported the existence of a secret association working for Philippine independence
  • James Seymour found out that Espantosa, a Portuguese was part of the association and had actually been behind the Cavite Mutiny.
  • Jose M Basa was asked to deliver a sealed package for Lucsinger and Comapny
  • JJ Reynolds protested his innocence when interrogated. A British, American naturalized citizen who built up Dagupan and set up a huge rice depot
  • Basa was implicated in the mutiny and was able to escape with Reynolds’ help.

7. TRIALS AFTER THE MUTINY

  • Juan Malcampo succeeded Juan Alaminos and before him, Izquierdo as Governor-General
  •  He was involved in conflicts with European powers. Spain, now a second-rate power could not face up to the colossus in the north.
  • Jacobo Zobel Sangroniz and Col. Francisco Moscoso, who convicted GOMBURZA were surprised with incriminating papers linking them to the Cavite mutineers. Zobel had a vast fortune aside from the Malabon-Manila tramway while Moscoso was the founder of a Masonic lodge in Cavite.
  • The German Plenipotentiary protested. Earlier, Izquierdo had refused to impose the law on his fellow Masons for fear of an international conflict and yet this was happening now.
  • German agents gave moral support and some of its funds. They occupied Formosa (Taiwan), supported the Joloanos against the Manila government, and provoked a revolution.
  • Izqueirdo wanted “swift and an exemplary punishment” on the guilty. The most important suspect was Fr. Burgos.
  • Defense lawyer of Burgos failed to rebut the charges and the latter was sentenced to death by garrote
  • Burgos was vocal about his defense for his fellow Philippine-born priests. He was instrumental in the release of Buencamino. His name became public due to his signed articles.
  • GOMBURZA was accused of conspiracy and was a threat to security and to the King. There were anomalies on their trials but it was overridden.
  • GOMBURZA had a palpable effect on the course of history

 

PART VIII

1. AFTER THE CAVITE MUTINY

  • Those exiled in Guam escaped to Hong Kong and became the nucleus of an anti-Spanish propaganda center
  • Jose M. Basa was the one who smuggled contrahand into Manila.
  • The others who had the means, migrated to Spain. These people later became convinced that their future lay in independence.
  • After Izquierdo, the next Governor-Generals improved travel and communication. Although the criollo problem was never resolved. The peninsulares never accepted them.
  • The new Governor-General, Domingo Moriones suppressed the Confraternity of Mercy who gave out donations and commercial investments.  He centralized the funds and allotted them to Colegio de Santa Isabel and Colegio de San Jose.
  • He also banned the entry of foreign currency and allowed only Mexican silver. He introduced two new institutions, which were the Saving and Loan Bank.
  • Three steamship routes to Mindanao were opened and mail service was streamlined. The Abra-Cagayan road was opened and Igorot families agreed to resettle in permanent communities.
  • As a sign of progress, publications arrived.
  • Moriones later resigned and died due to poor health.
  • Fernando Primo de Rivera succeeded him.  He had good projects for the colony but calamities struck. Philippine population was showing signs of growth but disease slowed it down.
  • Joaquin Jovellar was the one who succeeded next. He was face with an uprising in Nueva Ecija and Pampanga. The movement quickly collapsed due to inadequate arms and men.
  • The backwardness of the people should be taken into account. A labor would habor several  handicaps due to the difficulty of bringing weapons and there were some Indios who were loyal to Spain.
  • Jovellar was alarmed at the extent of abuses in the country by the Guardia Civil. He asked the superiors to help eradicate them.
  • It was never easy for the people to personally to follow the Christian code of conduct. They did not fully understand or were assimilated the truths of the Gospel. They enthused with some Christian practices and devotions for no sacrifice.

2. INITIAL PROPAGANDA WRITING

  • Unable to stop the exiles from escaping to Hongkong, the Manila government could only keep an eye on them. There were people with means who migrated to Europe.
  • Living abroad, the mestizos felt closer to the Philippne-born, while the criollos with the peninsulares.
  • There were newspapers but it was in Spanish. Only a few could read and afford the newspaper.
  • The first critical segment was written by the privileged few who had gone to higher education. But they lost their voice after GOMBURZA.
  • There were a good number of university students in Spain were more or less actively involved in political actives.
  • Pedro Aejandro Paterno’s family was relatively well off. He wrote verse compotions which he later published as a book, Sampaguita.
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